What is Power Factor?
Power Factor (PF) is the ratio of Power Utilized (KW) and Power Drawn(KVA).
Generally, when the applied to the electrical motors, the entire power is not converted as useful Work Done(KW). Depending on inductance of the motor a reactive power (KVAR) is generated which results in drawing of excess KVA.
PF = KWH / KVAH
To reduce the KVA drawn, the inductive KVAR is to be nullified by introducing an equal and opposite Capacitive KVAR according to the load pattern, thus OPTIMUM PF is maintained.
Why Power Factor must be maintained?
By maintaining an optimum PF the Power drawn (KVA) can be reduced, thus reducing the current passing through the electrical circuits to the maximum extent possible (event up
to 50%) thereby reducing the machine down time. reduction in heat losses in turn increases the life of the electrical circuits.
The State Electricity Boards (SEB’s) has installed Digital Electronic Energy (Tri-Vector) Meters for consumers, which has the provision of showing the PF and insisting to maintain the average Power Factor above a Specified limit (0.85 – 0.90 PF) Otherwise, for every reduction of 0.01 from the specified PF, PENALTY is levied on the Energy Consumption Charges (KWh) on the Electricity Bill. SEB’s are also offering PF incentives if the PF is maintained above the specified PF.
In few states, where the metering unit is KVAh and if the PF is maintained at its optimum of 0.99, the electricity bill amount itself is reduced considerably.
The optimum Power Factor can be maintained by installing PE’s AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR CONTROL PANEL
PE’s AUTOMATIC POWER FACTOR CONTROL PANEL
PE’s APFC panel has a Micro-controller based Programmable Controller, which switches the Capacitor banks of suitable capacity automatically, in multiple stages by directly reading the reactive power (RKVA) which works in the Principle of VAR Sensing, tends to maintain the PF to 0.99 Lag. The capacitor banks may be selected in number of stages as 4/5/6/7/8 according to the load pattern.
PE’s Automatic Power Factor Corrector Panel for WELDING MACHINES
In the case of Welding Machines, to maintain the PF, Capacitors should be introduced to the circuit instantaneously when the welding operation is done and disconnected on idle condition. If the Capacitor is permanently connected to the circuit even during idle condition the KVA drawn is more than that of the KW, result in low PF. Since the value of the Capacitance required varies with every machine. Individual PF Corrector Panel should be provided for every welding machine to maintain the optimum PF.
Since PE’s APFC Panel always tends to maintain the PF upto 0.99 Lag, it not only avoids PF Penalties, but also fetches recurring incentives in every electricity bill.
SINGLE PHASE CORRECTION or FINE CORRECTION
PE’s Single Phase APFC has Controller with 5 Stages per phase i.e., 15 stages in total is suitable for switching ON the star connected single phase Capacitors, wherever there is a Load imbalance. The number of stages can be increased or decreased according to customers request. The Fine Correction may be as low as 0.25 KVAR at the first stage ensures optimum PF and improves the efficiency of the power systems.
PE’s APFC Panel Controller also comes with a combined module of COARSE Correction (Delta Connected) and Fine Correction (Star Connected) Capacitors. The fine correction module , comes with 5 stages per phase, switches the star connected (i.e., 240 V) capacitors individually in every phase measuring the RKVA demand in an unbalanced power system.
For a given power system, PE’s APFC Panel always tends to maintain the Power Factor at 0.99 Lag by measuring the exact RKVA demand and switching ON a suitable capacitor bank automatically.
Salient Features of PE’s APFC Panel:
* Adjustment to any step of capacitor value
* Micro controller based technology. Digital computation of various parameters
* Continuous monitoring of parameters like Line Voltage, Current, Active, reactive and Apparent Powers and energies
* Scrolling Display on a Dot Matrix LCD
* Protection of Capacitors against damage due to High Voltage, Low Voltage
* Tends to maintain 0.99 lag
* Plug-in terminal connection
* No-Volt release features to disconnect all capacitors in the event of power failure
* Dynamic control of Reactive Power and Power Factor
* RS 232 / RS 485 Standard output port (optional)
* Fine & Coarse correction Controller
Benefits of PE’s APFC Panel:
* Power Factor penalty is avoided
* Avail incentives by maintaining optimum Power Factor
* Optimize the capacity by reducing the maximum demand KVA
* Avoids excess demand charges
* Improvement in line voltage
* Reduced line current losses and cable overheat
* Enhanced life of electrical circuits
* Avail Depreciation
* Reduced consumption (KWH) charges
* Avoids overloading of Distribution Transformers
* Additional Service connections in existing generation of power by reducing Energy Losses
* Reduced line losses Benefits SEB’s and Nation
* PE’s APFC Panels are available from 10KVAR Model onwards